where X is the normal force (see
Results and discussion
Overall, HSS heat treated to a high
hardness wore less than HSS heat
treated to a low hardness (Figure 1).
However, some HSS grades showed
better wear resistance over other
grades that had increased hardness.
For example, M2 (Rc 65.5) had a
higher wear index (1/X) and a lower
normal force than T15 (Rc 66.3), as
shown in Figure 1. Other examples
in Figure 1 show that HSSes of the
same hardness had different wear
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Generally, harder tool materials
are more resistant to chemical attack
at elevated temperatures (refractory)
and/or are better heat conductors.
The data in this study suggest that
this factor may explain the variation
in wear resistance for different HSS
grades with the same hardness. For
example, the analysis of variance
for the normal tool force at the high
hardness heat treatment shows M2
had a lower force than T15, but T15
was slightly harder than M2. Further,
M2 is the same hardness as Vasco
Wear at the low hardness heat treatment but their mean normal tool
forces are not the same (although
they are not statistically different).
Hence, chemical attack or hot corrosion could be responsible for some of
the wear resistance observed.
is a general indicator
of wear resistance in
HSS tools, other factors
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An HSS within each high- or low-hardness heat treatment may not
necessarily wear less, as indicated by
an inspection of the mean tool forces
alone (Figure 1). For example, Alloy
Z has the lowest mean tool forces in
the low hardness heat treatment, but
Alloy Z is also slightly harder than
the other HSSes. If the tool steels had
the same hardness, the results could
be different. The various alloying elements may affect the wear resistance
because they affect the hardness,
carbide composition, volume fraction
and chemical reactivity.
The combination of alloying
elements influences wear resistance. Alloy Z also includes aluminum, which in iron alloys has been
shown to reduce high-temperature
corrosion and oxidation. Because
high-temperature mechanisms have
been shown to cause wear in wood
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